Scholarly Quotes

Adam Smith- Division of Labor

“As first studied by Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx, the division of labor refers to novel forms of specialization separating the product ion process into compartments, each one performing different tasks, with varying rates of profit and implications for comparative advantages in trade. Smith's 1776 treatise on the division of labor concerned the wealth of all nations and became the seedbed of modern theories.”

Mittleman, J.(1995). Third world quarterly. Rethinking the international division of labor in the context of globalization. 16(2). P.273-295. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from

Time Studies- Fredrick Taylor

"The key to time study was the stop watch: timing the speed of the "first-class man" at each element of a task and then calculating, along with arbitrary allowances for rest periods, a set time to complete a particular job. This time would then be used to set piece rate pay. Taylor's work, largely done in the 1880s and 1890s, developed into a system described in his paper, "Shop Management." Later, in 1903, it was to be called "Scientific Management." (Ferguson, 1997, p.22)

Ferguson, D. (1997, May). Don't call it ‘Time and Motion Study’. IIE Solutions, 29(5), 22. Retrieved August 19, 2008, from


"Sir, there are two passions which have a powerful influence in the affairs of men. These are ambition and avarice; the love of power and the love of money. Separately, each of these has great force in prompting men to action; but, when united in view of the same object, they have, in many minds, the most violent effects. Place before the eyes of such men a post of honor, that shall, at the same time, be a place of profit, and they will move heaven and earth to obtain it."( Franklin, 1787).

Franklin, Benjamin. (1787). Dangers of Salaried Bureaucracy. Essential Speeches. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from

Human Relations Movement

"Our understanding of human problems of civilization should be at least equal to our understanding of its material problems. In the absence of such understanding, the whole industrial structure is liable to destruction or decay. A world-wide revolution of the Russian type would completely destroy civilization"

Mary Parker Follett- Integrative Conflict Resolution

"Follett compares and contrasts three alternate processes for dealing with conflict. She recommends that a participatory inventive integration process used to resolve conflict would help to produce a much more lasting and superior solution than either (a) domination, or (b) compromise. Constructive conflict accommodates the real differences between individuals in an enduring manner. The differences are discussed openly by inventing integrative solutions “in which the desires of conflicting parties have found a place, and (wherein) neither side had to sacrifice anything.” (Gehani & Gehani, 2007, p. 394)

Gehani,R.R. & Gehani, R. (2007). Mary Parker Follett’s Constructive Conflict: A“Psychological Foundation of Business Administration” for Innovative Global Enterprises. International Journal of Public Administration. 30(4), p. 394. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from

Hawthorne Studies- Elton Mayo

"In the early days of management research, Elton Mayo's Hawthorne experiments into workplace productivity showed that experimentation plays a very important role. It produces anomalous results that force you to go back and think about what you are doing. Our whole modern theory of humans at work goes back to that in vivo, clinical, experimental research, but there is very little of that going on today." (Roberts, ZoË, 2006, p. 31)

Roberts, ZoË. (2006). Nouveau Stratagem. People Management 12(15). Retrieved August 20, 2008 from

Total quality Management (TQM)- W. Edwards Deming

“…Observing an intellectual necessity, as well as a pragmatic imperative to explicate the theory of TQM that would explain the effectiveness of the Deming management method engaged in an in-depth theory-building examination and evaluation of Deming’s TQM approach.” (Rungtusanatham, 2003, p. 9)

Rungtusanatham, M., Ogden, J., & Wu, B. (2003, August). Advancing theory development in total quality management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(8), 918-936. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from


“Nebeker and Tatum suggest that management is continually planning, organizing, supervising, and controlling resources to achieve organizational goals.” (Kotterman, 2006, p.15)

Kotterman, J. (2006). Leadership versus management: What’s the difference? Journal for Quality & Participation 29(2), 13-17. Retrieved August 24, 2008 from

Efficiency and (or Vs.) Effectiveness

"There is a noticeable difference in sourcing objectives, however. U.S. companies have continued to pursue economic efficiency by emphasizing cost reduction through global sourcing, while Japanese companies have focused more on effectiveness in satisfying customers through quality, reliability, and swift product development cycle." (Kotabe, 1998, p. 108)

Kotabe, M. (1998, November). Efficiency vs. effectiveness orientation of global sourcing strategy: A comparison of U.S. and Japanese multinational companies. Academy of Management Executive, 12(4), pp. 107-119. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from


"The results from a mail survey of American Marketing Association members indicate that the marketers generally believe that ethics and social responsibility are important components of organizational effectiveness." (Anusorn, Kenneth, Scott & Kumar, 2008, p. 49)

Anusorn, S., Kenneth, K.L., Scott, V.J., & Kumar, R.C. The perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility on organizational effectiveness: a survey of marketers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(1), pp. 49-56. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from


"Planning is very positively related to profitability when an informant source of performance data is used, planning is measured without reference to written documentation, the quality of an assessment strategy is high, and the environments faced by the firms in a sample are turbulent." (Miller & Cardinal, 1994, p. 1661)

Miller, C., & Cardinal, L. (1994, December). Strategic planning and firm performance: a synthesis of more than two decades of research. Academy of Management Journal, 37(6), pp. 1649-1665. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from


“Leadership is a kind of successful performance (broadly defined by attitudes of particular social groups) resulting from the interaction of particular mental abilities, character and affective traits, under particular conditions. Certain so-called character and personality traits do not determine leadership except in a particular environment with a particular social group.” (Schoenfeld, 1948, p. 394)

Schoenfeld, B.N. (1948, May). The psychological characteristics of leaderships. Social Forces, 26(4), pp.391-396. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from


“…there are a variety of issues organizing committees face that are mentioned (in no particular order). Common issue categories include power/ politics, planning/organizing, financial, sponsorship, ticket sales, human resources, leadership, facilities, cultural events, tourism, weather, media, public support,
relationship and/or negotiations, legacy, and local infrastructure.” (Parent, 2008, p. 140)

Parent, M.M. (2008). Evolution and issue patterns for major-sport-event organizing committees and their stakeholders. Journal of Sport Management. 22. 135-164. Retrieved August 23, 2008 from


“In white collar industries, such as banking and retailing, the internalization of work tasks allowed monitoring systems to be developed which complemented the organizations administrative processes.” (Keneley, 2008, p. 319)

Keneley, M. (2008, August). Monitoring and motivating outworkers: the case of the AMP and the sale of industrial life insurance 1905-1940. Labor History, 49(3), pp. 319-340. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Tools for Planning

“Recent research suggests that computer-based simulation modeling is an effective tool for facilitating the planning and management of nature-based tourism (Daniel & Gimblett, 2000; Gimblett et al., 2000; Lawson & Manning, 2003a; Lawson et al., 2003; Wang & Manning, 1999). This research has identified at least four ways in which simulation modeling of visitor use can facilitate more informed planning and management.” (Lawson, 2006, p. 601)

Lawson, S. (2006, November). Computer simulation as a tool for planning and management of visitor use in protected natural areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(6), pp. 600-617. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Tools for Leading

“Such factors as knowledge, forcefulness, tone of voice, and size are effective components in the solution of many social situations and are, therefore, generally regarded as leadership qualities, especially in un-organized group situations like gangs, but the variety of possible factors is endless. Leadership qualities, so-called, vary indefinitely as the needs of groups vary indefinitely.” (Murphy, 1941, p.675)

Murphy, A.J. (1941, October). A study of the leadership process. American Sociological Review, 6(5), pp. 674-687. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Tools for Organizing

“New storage network technologies provide finer level of resolution for global storage; providing powerful tools for organizing vast repositories of data and information within a building, organization, within municipalities, across distributed organizations, and throughout the world.” (Mehta & Ives, 2004, p. 584)

Mehta, M., & Ives, B. (2004, September). Storage area networks. Communications of AIS, 2004(14), pp. 569-595. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Tools for Controlling

“If the objective is to lower land prices, bring forward the time of development of certain undeveloped land, and slow the rate of increase in land prices, it is difficult to find a fiscal instrument that will assuredly achieve all of the objectives. Site value taxes and vacant land taxes are perhaps the best tax tools available for controlling what is viewed as speculative activity. Each results in land prices being lower than otherwise in both the short and long run.” (Smith, 1978, p. 66)

Smith, R. (1978, January). Land prices and tax policy: a study of fiscal impacts. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 37(1), pp. 51-69. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Top Managers, Middle Managers, First Line Managers

"Conversely, CEO's and middle managers who make the conscious decision to plan, create, implement, and nurture a specific corporate culture have the potential to reap significant benefits." (Brunelle, 2004, p. 404)

Brunelle, F. (2004, November). Practitioner application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 49(6), pp.404-404. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Henry Mintzbers's Roles: Interpersonal Roles, Informational Roles, Decisional Roles

"The informational roles vary with environmental dynamism and complexity. the decisional roles vary with environmental dynamism and complexity. The interpersonal roles vary directly with dynamism and are moderated by complexity such that they are more frequent in complex as opposed to simple environments." (Gibbs, 1994, p. 581)

Gibbs, B. (1994). The effects of environment and technology on managerial roles. Journal of Management, 20(3), p. 581. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Informational Roles: Figure Head, Leader, Liaison

“It is our contention that, irrespective of the level at which work is done, the ethical atmosphere that a leader sets has a major impact on the ethical behavior of his or her followers. Specifically, the moral reputation of an organization may be influenced at many levels by its work team leaders. As the use of teams has grown and become one of the most influential and far-reaching trends to shape the business world, the ethical influence of team leaders has increased respectively.” (Lean & White, 2008, p. 765)

Lean, E., & White, D. (2008). The impact of perceived leader integrity on subordinates in a work team environment. Journal of Business Ethics 81(4), pp. 765-778. Retrieved August 24, 2008 from

Informational Roles: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson

“CPO's must be effective information managers who are able to gather privacy related intelligence from both the internal and external environments, assess this information, and then integrate it into existing privacy policies. In addition to this monitoring activity, CPO's must also be able to convey privacy-related policies and meanings effectively to internal stakeholders (disseminator role) as well as to public audiences to clearly articulate his or her firm’s stance on privacy related issues (spokesperson role).” (Kayworth, Brocato, & Whitten, 2005, pp. 120-121)

Kayworth, T., Brocato, L., & Whitten, D. (2005). What is a chief privacy officer? An analysis based on Mintzberg’s taxonomy of managerial roles. Communications of AIS 2005(16), pp. 110-126. Retrieved August 24, 2008 from

Decisional Roles: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator

“Fang posits that Chinese business negotiators use shrewd tricks and strategies in situations where they do not have a strong trust relationship with their negotiating counterpart. In terms of the Confucianism principle of reciprocity, it would be morally acceptable to use dirty tricks against negotiators that are unfair, inconsiderate or untruthful. Foreign negotiators are advised to attempt to move Chinese negotiators away from a competitive negotiation approach to a cooperative approach by establishing a strong trust relationship in the pre-negotiation phase (Fang, 1999).” (Horwitz, Hemmant, & Rademeyer, 2008, pp. 2-3)

Horwitz, F., Hemmant, R., & Rademeyer, C. (2008). Chinese business negotiations: South African firm experiences and perspectives. South African Journal of Business Management 39(1), pp. 1-13. Retrieved August 24, 2008 from

Technical Skills

“Technical skills have been described in the literature as "specific" factors contributing to therapy outcome and include skills such as the ability to administer, score, and interpret specialized assessment instruments, as well as the ability to utilize specialized therapy techniques.” (Schottler & Oliver & Porter, 2005, p. 48)

Schöttler, T., Oliver, L., & Porter, J. (2005). Defining and evaluating clinical competence: a review. Guidance & Counseling, 20(2), pp. 46-55. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Human Skills

“As with any human skills, interpersonal skills can be improved through conscious effort. Successful interpersonal communication involves shaping the behavior of others, often while countering their shaping behavior. To have a chance of being successful, every interpersonal contact must have an objective and every effort must be made to avoid creating win-lose transactions whenever possible.” (McConnell, 2004, p. 177)

McConnell, C. (2004, April). Interpersonal Skills. Health Care Manager, 23(2), 177-187. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Conceptual Skills

“These skills involve the ability to utilize a theoretical and conceptual framework to guide interactions; skilfully and appropriately use interventions; establish connections among symptoms, affect, and behavior; conceptualize client functioning and dynamics; develop a clear and coherent description and integration of client history with diagnosis; and develop appropriate treatment plans (Liston, Yager, & Strauss, 1981; Overholser & Fine, 1990; Shaw & Dobson, 1988).” (Schottler & Oliver & Porter, 2005, p. 48)

Schöttler, T., Oliver, L., & Porter, J. (2005). Defining and evaluating clinical competence: a review. Guidance & Counseling, 20(2), pp. 46-55. Retrieved August 24, 2008, from

Management vs. Leadership

“To conclude, the Management task is interwoven with elements of Management and Leadership. Both activities are essential to enable objectives and strategies to be achieved, business activities and human resources to be managed, change to be effectively achieved, and projected profits and organizational success to be achieved. In the words of Jim Clemmer (2005) “Both Management and Leadership are needed to make teams and organizations successful. Trying to decide which is more important is like trying to decide whether the right or left wing is more important to an airplane’s flight. I’ll take both please!” (McLean, 2005, p. 16)

McLean, J. (2005, October). Management and Leadership. Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management (49), p. 16. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Trust (and Leadership)

“The studies previously cited share a common theory as to why trust in leadership is assumed to be an important determinant of team performance. In short, trust in leadership is important in that it allows the team to be willing to accept the leader's activities, goals, and decisions and work hard to achieve them. The leader's role typically involves a number of activities related to team performance, such as determining team member roles, distributing rewards and motivating employees, developing team members, and setting the team's goals and strategies. When the team feels that it cannot rely on the leader or that the leader does not have the team's interests at heart, team members are unlikely to carry out the roles specified by the leader or to work toward the performance-related objectives and strategies set by the leader. This makes it difficult for the team to work together effectively and perform at a high level.” (Dirks, 2000, p. 1005)

Dirks, K. T. (2000). Trust in leadership and team performance: Evidence from NCAA basketball. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), pp. 1004-1012. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Honesty (and Leadership)

“Ethical leadership is known to contribute to employee commitment and satisfaction, as well as to attract and retain the best employees (Trevino, Hartman & Brown, 2000). Transformational leadership, in particular, has been shown to be related to a number of positive subordinate outcomes, including trust and respect for the leader, procedural justice and unit performance (Bass & Avolio, 1994; Craig & Gustafson, 1998; Krafft, Engelbrecht & Theron, 2004).” (Engelbrecht, Van Aswegen, & Theron, 2005, p. 19)

Engelbrecht, A. S., Van Aswegen, A. S., & Theron, C. C. (2005). The effect of ethical values on transformational leadership and ethical climate in organizations. South African Journal of Business Management, 36(2), pp. 19-26. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Vision (and Leadership)

“The leader may be the one who articulates the vision and gives it legitimacy,…. but if the organization is to be successful, the image must grow out of the needs of the entire organization and must be "claimed" or "owned" by all the important actors. (p.109)” (Farmer, Slater, & Wright, 1998, p. 220)

Farmer, B. A., Slater, J. W., & Wright, K. S. (1998). The role of communication in achieving shared vision under new organizational leadership. Journal of Public Relations Research, 10(4), pp. 219-235. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Inspiring (and Leadership)

“A leader who is inspired by self-concept-internal motivation is likely to value individual employees and the inherent strengths and contributions each makes. This leader’s use of individualized consideration is likely to inspire followers to see the goals of the leader as well as goals for personal growth (Bass, 1985).” (Barbuto Jr., 2005, p. 30)

Barbuto Jr, J. E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: a test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies (Baker College), 11(4), pp. 26-40. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Competence (and Leadership)

“For accurate communication of the outcomes of competence and attainment, a precision in the use of language in such statements will need to be established, approaching that of a science. The overall model stands or
falls on how effectively we can state competence and attainment.” (Lum, 2004, p. 485)

Lum, G. (2004). On the non-discursive nature of competence. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 36(5), p. 485-496. Retrieved August 30, 2008 from

Modeling Values (and Leadership)

“It is considered to be an intimate relationship based on emotions that can be socially constituted (and manipulated) (Solomon, 1996; Ciulla, 1998, pp. 11-3). This scope of influence highlights the centrality of ethics, values and morals. This is particularly evident with transformational leaders who can enable followers to excel beyond expectations by unifying their values and beliefs and raising their followers up through various stages of morality and need (Ciulla, 1998, pp. 15-6). Integrity of character within this transforming relationship between the follower and leader is therefore essential and is often found to be associated with successful leadership (Alimo-Metcalfe, 1996; Bass, 1990, pp. 75, 69; Bennis, 1989, p. 117; Calman, 1998; DePree, 1992, p. 10; Jarrold, 1998; Kouzes and Posner, 1987, pp. 16, 301; Rosenbach and Taylor, 1998, p. 225; Simons, 1999).” (Storr, 2004, p.417)

Storr, L. (2004). Leading with integrity: A qualitative research study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 18(6), pp. 415-434. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Shared Vision (or Common Vision)

“A value system that is shared by all participants, from members of the board to every employee, may be one of the most crucial requirements for sound management in the changing health care agency of the future. (McClure et al., 1983, p.101).” (Manley, 2004, p. 1)

Manley, K. (2004). Editorial workplace culture: Is your workplace effective? How would you know?. Nursing in Critical Care, 9(1), pp. 1-3. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Credibility (and Leadership)

“Hollander (1992) posited that women leaders often face an initial credibility gap. Milwid’s (1992) study of 125 nontraditionally employed professional women reported that they felt men were initially skeptical of their abilities until they subsequently proved themselves.” (Yoder, Schleicher, & McDonald, 1998, p. 211)

Yoder, J., Schleicher, T., & McDonald, T. (1998). Empowering token women leaders: The importance of organizationally legitimated credibility. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(2), pp. 209-222. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Relationship (and leadership)

“The importance of innovation within organizations has been demonstrated on numerous occasions, which has subsequently led to the identification of effective leadership as a potential catalyst. Accordingly, empirical findings have repeatedly demonstrated a positive relationship between transformational leadership and work unit effectiveness measures.” (Reuvers, van Engen, Vilkenburg, & Wilson-Evered, 2008, p. 228)

Reuvers, M., van Engen, M., Vilkenburg, C., & Wilson-Evered, E. (2008). Transformational leadership and innovative work behavior: Exploring the relevance of gender differences. Creativity & Innovation Management. 17(3), pp. 227-244.

Recognition (and leadership)

“I describe two perspectives of relational leadership: an entity perspective that focuses on identifying attributes of individuals as they engage in interpersonal relationships, and a relational perspective that views leadership as a process of social construction through which certain understandings of leadership come about and are given privileged ontology. These approaches can be complementary, but their implications for study and practice are quite different. After reviewing leadership research relative to these two perspectives I offer Relational Leadership Theory (RLT) as an overarching framework for the study of leadership as a social influence process through which emergent coordination (e.g., evolving social order) and change (e.g., new approaches, values, attitudes, behaviors, ideologies) are constructed and produced. This framework addresses relationships both as an outcome of investigation (e.g., How are leadership relationships produced?) and a context for action (e.g., How do relational dynamics contribute to structuring?). RLT draws from both entity and relational ontologies and methodologies to more fully explore the relational dynamics of leadership and organizing.” (Uhl-Bien, 2006, p. 654)

Uhl-Bien, M. (2006). Relational leadership theory: Exploring the social processes of leadership and organizing.. Leadership Quarterly. 17(6), pp. 654-676.

Leadership and Change

“When change requires you to challenge people's familiar reality, it can be difficult, dangerous work. Whatever the context, whether in the private or the public sector, many will feel threatened as you push though major changes. But as a leader, you need to find a way to make it work.” (Heifetz & Linsky, 2009, p. 1)

Heifetz, R. & Linsky, M. (2009). Practice of adaptive leadership: Tools and tactics for changing your organization and the world. Harvard Business School Press, p. 1. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Organizational Innovation

“Organizational learning takes places in a technological community of interaction in which knowledge is created and expands in a constant dynamic between the tacit and the explicit with cognitive and behavioral change. Organizations with greater organizational learning generate a network of learning that will make it easier for them to learn what they need to know and to innovate, enabling the organization to maintain its competitive position as a technological center.” (García-Morales, 2008, p. 190)

García-Morales, V. J., Matias-Reche, F., Hurtado-Torres, N. (2008).Influence of transformational leadership on organizational innovation and performance depending on the level of organizational learning in the pharmaceutical sector. Journal of Organizational Change Movement. 21(2), pp. 188-212. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from


“Most industrial R&D managers emphasize the necessity of an innovative environment in which creativity can prosper. While innovation in this respect is not a random process, R&D managers often argue that this process of knowledge creation is hard to manage.” (Bakker, Boersma, & Oreel, S., 2006, p.296)

Bakker, H., Boersma, K., & Oreel, S. (2006). Creativity (ideas) management in industrial R&D organizations: A Crea-political process model and an empirical illustration of Corus RD&T. Creativity and Innovation Management 15(3), pp. 296-309. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from

Kurt Lewin: Unfreezing, Change, Refreezing

“The model of change utilized in this consultancy was Kurt Lewin’s (1987), three stages approach: ‘unfreezing’, ‘change’, ‘re-freezing’. Each of these stages was used as a focus for the sessions with the staff groups. Stage 1: Focused on ‘unfreezing’ the existing staff culture by helping individuals consider their own agenda for change.Stage 2: Essentially was about consolidating the context for change by allowing staff to begin to develop a perspective on the future. Stage 3: Created the staff’s blueprint for the future by clarifying the perspectives of both staff and young people.” (Watson & West, 2001, p. 94)

Watson, D. & West, J. (2001). Managing the process of change in residential child care: A consultancy approach. Journal of Social Work Practice, 15(1), p. 91-101. Retrieved August 30, 2008 from

Change Forces, Resistant Forces, Change Intervention

“To change your organization, at either the department level or at the organizational level, success is more likely if you apply more than just change management approaches. Changing requires addressing the strategy (what you are trying to change), skills (what capabilities the recipients of the change need for success in the new state), and structures (the long-term and short-term organizational tools that support the new state).” (Carter, 2008, p. 20)

Carter, E. (2008). Successful change requires more than change management. Journal for Quality & Participation, 31(1), pp. 20-23. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database from

John Kotter: 8 Steps (or Leading Change)

"Kotter's eight-step change process was followed because it was known to have been successfully applied in many other organizations," says M-real Sittingboume operations manager Nidf Carter. "It is a proven process which follows a rigorous structure and maximizes the degree of success of the change effort and minimizes the likelihood of wasted resources." (Miller, 2005, p.26)

Miller, E. (2005). Seeing clearly now. Printing World, 289(1), p. 26. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from

Organizational Development

“Today's workforce is characterized by diversity. The importance of understanding that language and culture considerations play an important part in today's organizational development is imperative to the success of that organization. Leadership must address this issue; Communication must address this issue; and Training must address this issue. Your attitude must embrace this multi-cultural reality, and provide the motivational inspiration for it to succeed.” (Reidenbach, 2008, p. 13)

Reidenbach, J. (2008). Leadership: Attitude is everything. Supervision, 69(8), pp. 12-13. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from

General Electric Workout

“As soon as management believes that the acute trauma of the layoff has subsided somewhat, survivors should be given every opportunity to play an active role in shaping the post-layoff work environment. Some organizations (e.g.. General Electric's "Workout" program) have cultivated participatory processes in which survivors are encouraged to make suggestions on how the organization can do more (work) with less (workers).” (Brockner, 1992, p. 24)

Brockner, J. (1992). Managing the effects of layoffs on survivors. California Management Review, 34(2), pp. 9-28. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from

Change Agent

"You have to be fairly prescriptive about aligning goals and managing performance," Yolton notes. "It's not a one-shot deal." (2008, p. 19)

(2008). Case study: Kaiser Permanente’s healthy approach to change. Training, 45(6), p. 19. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from

External Environments

“The web of external relationships that surrounds any small business, whether referred to as a “strategic alliance” (for example, Miles, Preece, and Baetz 1999) or a “network” (for example, Curran et al. 1993), is capable of providing a wide variety of tangible and intangible benefits.” (Street & Cameron, 2007, p. 240)

Street, C. T. & Cameron, A. (2007). External relationships and the small business: A review of small business alliance and network research. Journal of Small Business Management 45(2), pp. 239-266. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Punctuated Equilibrium

“Other scholars have fit the punctuated equilibrium argument with theories of budget change. Empirically, these studies show that U.S. federal (Jones et al., 1998; Jones et al., 2003; True, 2000), local (Jordan, 2003; Robinson, 2004), and other national (John & Margetts, 2003; Mortenson, 2005) budget behavior is peaked with large punctuations. These studies collectively result in the realization that these extreme changes have a place in budget process theory and that it is necessary to look at what causes budget punctuations in order to have a better grasp on how budgetary decisions are made.” (Breunig & Koski, 2006, p. 366)

Breunig, C., & Koski, C. (2006). Punctuated Equilibria and Budgets in the American States. Policy Studies Journal, 34(3), pp. 363-379. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Environmental Complexity

“To be successful in the market place, an organization has to make strategic adaptations to meet the requirements of customers and adjust to the environmental changes. In general, the process of strategic formulation starts with business strategy, then, moves on to functional strategy such as operations strategy, marketing strategy, etc. An organization's business strategy is a plan to realize its objectives and determine its competitive priorities.” (Li, Li, Liu, & Wang, 2005, p. 2578)

Li, Y., Li, L., Liu, Y., & Wang, L. (2005). Linking management control system with product development and process decisions to cope with environment complexity. International Journal of Production Research 43 (12), pp. 2577-2591. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from

General Environment

“Growing globalization of international markets stimulates international capital and investment flows among open economy countries adding vitality to processes in real estate markets. Indicators of cash flow dynamic reflect the character and features of the real estate market in certain country during certain period. The importance of international investments and the role of banks in real estate market are obvious as it weakens links between incomes and purchasing power of the real estate market participants.” (Venclauskienė & Snieška, 2008, p. 153)

Venclauskienė, D. & Snieška, V. (2008). The effect of borrowers mortgage payment default on economics. Economics & Management, pp. 153-154. Retrieved August 29, 2008, from Business Source Complete database from

Specific Environment

“Disease-specific advocacy organizations support and educate affected individuals and their families, and engage in research at various levels. These organizations can overcome some of the problems of carrying out translational research for rare disorders. They can also accelerate this research by taking a novel approach that focuses specifically on moving from understanding the genetic basis of the disease to developing prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that are of direct benefit to patients.” (Terry, Terry, Rauen, Uitto, & Bercovitch, 2007, p. 157)

Terry, S. F., Terry, P. F., Rauen, K. A., Uitto, J., & Bercovitch, L. G. (2007, February). Advocacy groups as research organizations: The PXE International example. Nature Reviews Genetics, 8(2), pp. 157-164. Retrieved August 28, 2008, doi:10.1038/nrg1991 from

Organizational Culture

“Using shared values to change practice is instrumental in enabling the culture experienced to reflect the values and beliefs talked about – one attribute of an effective culture (Manley, 2000a).” (Manley, 2004, p. 1)

Manley, K. (2004). Editorial workplace culture: Is your workplace effective? How would you know?. Nursing in Critical Care, 9(1), pp. 1-3. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Organizational Stories and Ceremonies

“Granted, even optimistic stories have to be true and believable, since jaded corporate audiences know too well the experience of being presented with half-truths. Stories told in order to spur action need to make good on their promises and contain sufficient evidence of a positive outcome. But stories intended mainly to transfer knowledge must be more than true. Because their objective is to generate understanding and not action, they tend to highlight the pitfalls of ignorance; they are meant not to inspire people but to make them cautious.” (Denning, 2004, p. 125)

Denning, S. (2004). Telling tales. Harvard Business Review, 82(5), pp. 122-129. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Organizational Heroes and Rites of Passage

“Rules become the standard by which you are judged and judge yourself. Rituals carry with them a sense of history. Rites of Passage, the right Rights of Passage, can result in greater confidence, higher self-esteem and a more positive self-image, all of which are desperately lacking in this industry. Rules, Rituals and Rites of Passage strip away all but the very essence of the self, which can then be refined or rebuilt. They bring with them a reverence for history, a profound respect for all those who have preceded you and a sense of community with all those who have been challenged as you have been challenged, as well as a sense of acceptance for all those yet to come.” (Schneider, 2002, pp. 68-69)

Schneider, M. (2002). Rules, Rituals and Rites of Passage. Motor Age, 121(8), pp. 67-70. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from

Visible Artifacts and Symbols

“Schein (1986, 1992) defines three levels of cultural phenomena. At the surface, there are artifacts, which include primarily visible behaviors such as organizational structures, practices and processes, technology, rituals, and language. This includes all the phenomena that one sees, hears, and feels when one encounters a new group with an unfamiliar culture…To ascertain the meaning of artifacts and espoused values, one has to decipher the underlying assumptions in an organization.” (Nahm, Vonderembse, & Koufteros, 2004, p. 582)

Nahm, A.Y., Vonderembse, M.A., & Koufteros, X.A. (2004). The impact of organizational culture on time-based manufacturing and performance. Decision Sciences 35(4), pp. 579-607. Retrieved August 28, 2008, from

Strong and Weak Cultures

“Critics of the strong culture perspective contend that the content of the organizational culture, not only its overall strength, is a better indication of its general effectiveness. The stronger an inappropriate value system, the worse an organization may be expected to perform. Equally, organizations in which basic assumptions are not strongly held may prove in the long run to be more adaptable to external forces than organizations with strong cultural centers. Culturally diverse organizations may be more effective because they are able to exploit the unique skills of their diverse workforce.” (Rondeau & Wager, 1998, p. 14)

Rondeau, K.V. & Wager, T. H. (1998). Hospital chief executive officer perceptions of organizational culture. Hospital Topics 76(2), p.14. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from

Behavioral Addition and Behavioral Substitute

“In predicting employees’ creative performance, scholars have focused on open, participative, and supportive leader behaviors (Amabile, 1988). When leaders support followers’ task performance and encourage them to make their own decisions regarding their tasks, the followers are more likely to identify ineffective procedures and unnecessary policies and further advance suggestions for improvement…LePine and Van Dyne (1998) also found that self-managing practices that allow autonomy for decision making increased employees’ behavior of expressing constructive challenges to improve processes.” (Choi, 2007, p. 473)

Choi, J. N. (2007). Change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: Effects of work environment characteristics and intervening psychological processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior 28(4), pp. 467-484. Retrieved August 28, 2008 from


“…Greater benefits in system performance are available through decision-making coordination, which aligns all information and incentives to support global system objectives.” (Fugate, Sahin, & Mentzer, 2006, p. 130)

Fugate, B., Sahin, F., & Mentzer, J. (2006). Supply chain management coordination mechanisms. Journal of Business Logistics, 27(2). Retrieved November 10, 2008, from


“What the good manager – one whose moral and financial performance are both good – wants is to reap the rewards of the familiar but often hollow refrain, ‘‘good ethics is good business,’’ while minimizing culpability for bad moral outcomes.” (Michaelson, 2008, p. 773)

Michaelson, C. (2008). Moral luck and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(4). Retrieved November 9, 2008, from

“By its very nature, ethics is about weighing and balancing different considerations,
morally relevant considerations, and interests of different stakeholders who might be in conflict. What ethics really allows and inspires leaders to do is the process of weighing and balancing often-conflicting demands and interests.” (Thompson, 2007, p. 82)

Thompson, K. (2007). A corporate training view of ethics education: An interview with Dov L. Seidman, CEO of LRN. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies (Baker College), 13(3). Retrieved November 9, 2008, from

“…People of good character make appropriate ethical judgements, not theories (Moody-Adams 1997: 16).” (Dawson, 2005, p. 59)

Dawson, L. (2005). Philosophy, work ethic and business ethics. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (19). Retrieved November 9, 2008, from

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