“A transformational leader can create an impression that he or she has high competence and a vision to achieve success.” (Keller, 2006, p.203)

Keller, R. (2006). Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: A longitudinal study of research and development project team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 91(1), 202-210. Retrieved November 12, 2008, from

“American supervisors must prove themselves worthy of their authority by demonstrating their skill competence in order to establish their expert power (Kadushin & Harkness, 2002). In addition, supervisors should be skillful when setting the limits in their relationship and developing shared meanings with supervisees, so that supervisees will perceive them as role models (Kaiser, 1997) and then referent power can be established.” (Tsui, et. al. (2005, pg. 62)

Tsui, M., Ho, W., & Lam, C. (2005). The use of supervisory authority in chinese cultural context. Administration in Social Work, Vol. 29. Retrieved November 12, 2008 from

“Particularity of the professional competence is determined by the individuals functional labour activity, whereas social and conceptual competences are general competencies that are necessary for an individual despite his position in the company. As a rule, namely these competences become strategically significant in the rapidly changing business world, especially while talking about managers, which enable the organization to acquire advantage due to the human factor.” (Savanevičienė, Stukaitė & Šilingienė, 2008, p.81)

Savanevičienė, A., Stukait, D., & Šilingienė, V. (2008). Development of strategic individual competences. Engineering Economics 58(3), 81-88. Retrieved November 12, 2008, from

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